Natural Anthropohenic Systems Department
Laboratory of Hypergene Processes Geochemistry
Head of the Department and the Laboratory: George A. Chelnokov, Cand. Sc. (Geology and Mineralogy)
The Laboratory of Hypergenene Processes Geochemistry used to be called the Laboratory of Oceanic Lythogenesis and Ore Formation till 2017 and it appeared in 1975 as separate branch of the Laboratory of Sedimentary Formations. Due to the initiative of D. Sc. (Geology and Mineralogy) V.B. Kurnosov and who has led the first team The main area of activity at the first stage was studying the mineral composition of finely-dispersed layered silicates on the land and in the ocean with the purpose of identifying settings of sedimentation and postdiagenetic alternations of sedimentary deposits. As the laboratory developed a greater emphasis
was put on studying the oceanic processes such as hydrothermal alternation of igneous rocks of the oceanic crust, ferromanganese concretions and crusts, as well as phospharites on the sea floor. D. Sc. (Geology and Mineralogy) O.V. Chudaev succeeded V.B. Kurnosov as Head of the laboratory in 1988, he has initiated working in a new scientific area of research on geochemistry of groundwaters of the Russian Far East. This research work evolved in joint projects with the British and Icelandic geological surveys, Universities of Tokyo, Berlin and Mexico and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The investigations of geochemistry of groundwaters have been supported by the Russian Fund of Basic Research (RFBR), later Russian Science Foundation (RSF), international associations such as INTAS, DAAD and UNO. The laboratory’s staff focused on developing the perspective direction of hydrochemistry research on analyzing the possibility to use REE in the reconstruction of conditions of formation and further transformation of the chemical composition of mineral waters.
The microbiological direction in investigation of microbiological impact on the thermomineral sources of the Far Eastern region was added and has been developed under the guidance of N.A. Kharitonova since 2012. Great success has been achieved in studying aquifers by means of electron microscopy methods. The complex approach allowed to a fresh look at the problems of water formation in the specific rocks and identification the processes influencing the composition of the last ones. G.A. Chelnokov has been the Head of the Laboratory since 2016. Currently the laboratory is represented by 11 researchers and including 3 Doctors and 4 Candidates of Sciences in Geology and Mineralogy. The employees of the laboratory deliver lectures at the Far Eastern Federal University and Lomonosov Moscow State University.
The major directions of investigations:
- studying the conditions of formation of natural water of the Russian Far East by taking into consideration the geochemical and microbiological characteristics of the last ones;
- evaluation of the role of the tectonic structure in the formation of underground water types (fresh, mineral, thermal);
- evaluation of action of mining production and man-made systems on atmo-, litho-, bio- and hydro- spheres;
- physicochemical modeling of hypergene and technogenic mineral formation processes at the mining production sites of the Far East, evaluating the extent of environmental pollution and working out the recommendations on minimizing the ecological effect of the hypergene and technogenic processes;
- training of young researchers of the international level at the premises of the laboratory combined with close interaction with concerned universities.
The laboratory’s scientists’ research results are reflected in the collective monographs: «Environmental impact of the gold ore processing wastes and developing the methods of final cleaning of the last ones» (2017), «Geochemical peculiarities of rare-earth elements’ performance in the waters of the Russian Far East in conditions of natural and anthropogenic anomalies» (2017), and in the articles of the leading Russian and foreign journals: «Lithology and Mineral Resources», «Geology and Geophysics », «Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences», «Russian journal of Pacific Geology», «Geochemistry Journal», «Environmental Geoscience», «The Russian Journal of General Chemistry», «Moscow University Bulletin», «Russian Meteorology and hydrology», «The Russian Journal of Marine Biology», «Ecological chemistry», Russian Journal of General Chemistry», «Acta Geologica Sinica», «Applied Geochemistry», «Environmental Earth Science», «Geochemical Exploration», «Mineralogical Magazine», «Journal of Hydrology», etc.
The Laboratory’s investigatins are actively supported by the RFBR, RSF and the Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences program called «The Far East». There is an acting agreement on Scientific Cooperation concluded with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan (AIST), with the purpose of joint study of the thermal mineral resources of Sakhalin and Hokkaido.